Updated and extended technical presentation / CPD: The US refrigerant landscape

With particular focus on legislation, the growth of “mildly flammable” refrigerants and the opportunities for the data center sector.

This presentation has been developed with input from consultants, suppliers and our research team, and is aimed at consultants designing data center cooling systems, who want to understand the refrigerant landscape now and in the future.
The presentation can be delivered remotely or in-person by our data center expert Stuart Kay and covers:

  • An introduction to refrigerants and global warming potential
  • Global refrigerant legislation (Montreal Protocol, Kigali Amendments)
  • US legislation
    • Kigali
    • PFAS Legislation
    • EPA timeline of US regulations
    • Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)
    • Climate Alliance States / California Air Resources Board
    • AIM Phasedown
    • Building Codes
  • A2L Refrigerants
  • Airedale by Modine strategy
    • Impacts / Considerations
    • Suppliers / Competitors
    • Airedale envisioned timeline
  • Supplier Strategies
  • Technical Considerations
    • CRAC
    • Chiller
    • Application
    • Service / Maintenance

Stuart Kay, North American Sales Director at Airedale by Modine:

As we transition to a low carbon economy and try to reduce the impact of global warming, HVAC manufacturers like Airedale by Modine are working extremely hard to understand how legislation, technical considerations and our own sustainability goals will impact our data center cooling portfolio both now and in the future.


It is important we pass on this knowledge, as system designers need to be aware of manufacturer plans and understand how the systems they design need to evolve to reflect what is a rapidly evolving landscape.

I’m excited to take this presentation on the road and look forward to some engaging discussions with likeminded people looking to take this industry forward into a more sustainable future”


Data Center Chiller Design & Optimization

A few years ago, chiller operating limits and efficiencies were preventing the industry achieving the PUEs it strove for. Alternatives, like adiabatic dry air coolers, were taking advantage of elevated supply air temperatures to provide solutions with a reduced need for compressors.  Chillers were inflexible with fixed operating envelope, typical approach temperatures were wide, resulting in low supply water temperatures and the system designs were not taking full advantage of free cooling opportunities.

This presentation looks at how Chiller manufacturers like Airedale are looking at how optimizing the various variables involved in a cooling system can play to the chiller’s strengths via:

  • Harmonization of indoor / outdoor equipment.
  • Evolving system parameters and operating envelopes
  • Incorporating latest technologies


  • Data center chiller componentry
  • Glycol / Enclosed glycol loops
  • Enhanced free cooling
  • Controls


Water Side Optimization

In all, data centers throughout the United States were projected to consume a combined 174 billion gallons of water in 2020 (US Department of Energy report). With water an increasingly precious and often scarce natural resource, the data center industry must take its water conservation responsibilities seriously.

This presentation covers a cooling system design philosophy called Water-Side Optimization, a method of adjusting system parameters to deliver excellent PUEs without the use of adiabatic cooling.


  • Global water crisis
  • The evolution of data center cooling
  • Temperature variables
  • Optimizing temperature variables
  • How to achieve in projects – equipment / software



What is ASHRAE TC9.9?

ASHRAE is widely recognized by the data center industry as the unbiased engineering leader in HVAC applications and an effective provider of technical information. It’s TC9.9 technical committee and publication “thermal guidelines for data processing environments” is an industry bible for consultants, operators and manufacturers.

“Thermal guidelines for data processing environments” was updated in 2021 and is now in its 5th edition. This CPD covers a general overview of the TC9.9 guidelines, the updates in the 5th edition and the implications for cooling equipment.

What is ASHRAE TC9.9

  • Explanation of key terms
  • Key points / updates
  • Updated thermal guidelines
  • Cooling systems

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